As originally formed, the county included a large area of land extending from the mouth of Little Red River to the Missouri line and included all or parts of Fulton, Baxter, Sharp, Izard, Stone, Cleburne, Van Buren, White, Jackson and Woodruff Counties. The first courthouse was built at Batesville and the county seat has remained in the town of Batesville.
The first post office at Batesville was opened as Poke Creek November 7, 1820, with Charles Kelly, the county's first sheriff, as postmaster. The name of the office was officially changed to Batesville on January 7, 1824.
One of the first settlements of Arkansas was at the Batesville site. There is a record of a John Read opening a store there in 1812 and there is also an authentic record of John Luttig's store, which had a $5,500 stock of goods at the site in 1815. Poke Bayou was visited by the writer Henry R. Schoolcraft, who described it as a village of a dozen houses in 1819.
Sharp, Lawrence, Jackson, White, Cleburne, Stone and Izard counties.