Lumpkin County was created on December 3, 1832. The county was named for Wilson Lumpkin, who at the time was Governor of Georgia. Lumpkin's daughter, Martha Wilson Lumpkin Compton, was the namesake of the town named Marthasville, the early-1840s name for Atlanta in Fulton County; this was designated as the capital of the state after the Civil War.
In the 1830s, gold was discovered in the county near Auraria, leading to a rush of miners and development. The U.S. government established a mint in Dahlonega, operating for 23 years until the outbreak of the American Civil War. State contractors later acquired gold from Lumpkin County to gild the dome of the current state capitol building in Atlanta.
Pickens, Dawson, Forsyth, Fulton, Cobb, Bartow, and Gordon counties.