On March 25, 1655, during the English Civil War, (1642-1651), in Europe, the Battle of the Severn, the first naval colonial battle ever fought in America, was fought in Anne Arundel County on the Severn River between Puritan forces supporting the Commonwealth of England and forces loyal to the Lord Proprietor, Cecilius Calvert. The Commonwealth forces under William Fuller were victorious.
In 1692, the Church of England, also known as the Anglican Church, became the established church of the Province of Maryland through an Act of the General Assembly. Ten counties had been established in the colony, and those counties were divided into 30 parishes, with vestrymen appointed within each. Ann Arrundell County was divided into four parishes: Herring Creek, South River, Middle Neck and Broad Neck.
Between 1694 and 1695, the provincial capital of Maryland was moved from St. Mary's City along the northern shore of the Potomac River across from the southern colonial border with the Province of Virginia in St. Mary's County farther north along the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, midway in the colony to Annapolis in Anne Arundel County. Prior to the move, Annapolis was known as "Providence".
During the American Revolutionary War, citizens of Anne Arundel County supported the Continental Army by providing troops for three regiments. The 3rd Maryland Regiment, the 4th Maryland Regiment, and the 6th Maryland Regiment were recruited in the county.
Baltimore County (north)
Calvert County (south)
Kent County (northeast)
Howard County (northwest)
Prince George's County (southwest)
Queen Anne's County (east)
Talbot County (southeast)