Northern and central Alabama was part of British Georgia from 1763 to 1783 and part of the United States Mississippi Territory thereafter. Statehood was delayed by the territory's lack of a coastline. When Andrew Jackson captured Spanish Mobile in 1814, he claimed that area for the US and gained passage to the gulf. Alabama was the twenty-second state, admitted to the Union in 1819. Its constitution provided for universal suffrage for white men.
Alabama was part of the new frontier in the 1820s and 1830s.
Alabama County Map
Historic, time series maps from the University of Alabama - Historic Alabama Maps at UA
Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida in the southeast, Mississippi to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the south.
Alabama Counties at Wikipedia