In 1806 the county took its present proportions, when Nelson County was formed from its northern half. At that point, the county seat was moved to the village of Five Oaks, later renamed Amherst. The present county courthouse was built in 1870 and has served the county ever since. Amherst County produced more Confederate soldiers per capita than anywhere else in the Confederate States of America.
Rockbridge County, Virginia – northwest
Nelson County, Virginia – northeast
Appomattox County, Virginia – southeast
Campbell County, Virginia – south
Lynchburg, Virginia – south (independent city)
Bedford County, Virginia – southwest