This county originally extended from the Chattahoochee River to the Alabama state line on the east and on the west, with its northern boundary at the Cherokee Nation, just north of present-day Interstate 20. As population increased, the land was divided into Carroll, Douglas, and Heard counties, along with parts of Haralson and Troup counties.
Carroll County witnessed the state's first gold rush. It is named for Charles Carroll of Maryland, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carrollton, the county seat, takes its name from Carroll's plantation.
Coweta, Douglas, Fulton, Haralson, Heard and Paulding counties in Georgia along with Randolph, and Cleburne counties in Alabama.